Since the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, technological advances have driven three stages of industrial revolution, characterized by dramatic increases in industrial productivity. In the late eighteenth century, steam-engine-powered factories became the norm. The discovery and usage of electricity led to mass production in the early part of the twentieth century, and industry became “automated” in the 1970s. We are now living through the fourth stage of industrial revolution, in which value chains are becoming integrated end-to-end through cyber-physical systems and dynamic data processing.

These trends call for a value chain beyond a single enterprise, in which sensors, machines, work pieces, and IT systems will be connected. These connected systems (also referred to as cyber-physical systems) can interact using standard Internet-based protocols and analyze data to predict failure, configure themselves, and adapt to changes. Industry 4.0 will make it possible to gather and analyze data across machines, enabling faster, more flexible, and more efficient processes to produce higher-quality goods at reduced costs. This in return will increase manufacturing productivity, shift economics, foster industrial growth, and modify the profile of the workforce .


Nine technology drivers are fueling the industrial production of the future .



Big Data and Analytics
Analytics based on large data sets emerged only recently in the manufacturing world, optimizing production quality, saving energy, and improving equipment service. In an Industry 4.0 context, the collection and comprehensive evaluation of data from many different sources—such as production equipment and systems, as well as enterprise and customer management systems—to support real-time decision making will become standard.

Autonomous Robots
Manufacturers in many industries have long used robots to tackle complex assignments. However, robots are evolving and becoming more autonomous, flexible, and cooperative, while offering lower costs and greater capabilities. Eventually, they will interact with one another and work safely side-b- side with humans while learning from them.(Copyright from TUSİAD)